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L’irrésistible hausse des dépenses d’armement
Selon la commission des finances de l’Assemblée nationale, les programmes d’armement naval lancés depuis 1997 vont exiger 50 milliards d’euros de plus que prévu. Le montant exact reste cependant inconnu. Le ministère de la Défense ne communique pas au Parlement les chiffres du coût réel des programmes d’armement.
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Les deux lois de programmation militaire votées en 1997 et 2003 ont lancé trois grands programmes d’armement qui prévoient l’acquisition de 6 sous-marins d’attaque nucléaire Barracuda, 17 frégates européennes multi-mission (FREMM) et un deuxième porte-avions nucléaire pour venir épauler le Charles-de-Gaule.
Au vu de l’état des finances publiques, la commission des finances de l’Assemblée nationale a voulu faire en 2008 un point budgétaire sur les dépenses liées à ces équipements. Une initiative d’autant plus opportune qu’il existe un document, la « version actualisée du référentiel » (VAR), dans lequel le ministère de la Défense retrace les coûts réels et le calendrier d’exécution des programmes d’armement. Les élus sont cependant restés sur leur faim en constatant que le VAR n’est « jamais transmis au Parlement ». Elle a donc dû se contenter de données budgétaires partielles.
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Son constat est pourtant sans appel : les devis initiaux de ces programmes d’armement n’ont rien à voir avec leur coût réel. En 2001, le premier chiffrage du programme Barracuda s’élevait à 5,4 milliards d’euros. Réactualisé en 2006, il a grimpé à 7,87 milliards, soit une augmentation de 45%.
Les parlementaires constatent donc que « d’emblée, dès le début de la programmation, il existe un écart entre les programmes physiques et les moyens budgétaires prévus ». D’après leurs calculs, le programme des frégates va coûter 5 milliards de plus que prévu et celui des sous-marins 4 milliards supplémentaires.
Un deuxième facteur vient encore saler la note : les reports de paiement désignés aussi sous le terme de « régulation budgétaire ». L’Etat ouvre bien une ligne de crédit pour ces programmes mais les sommes réellement versées sont très inférieures. En 2006, le budget voté prévoyait ainsi 1,3 milliard d’euros d’autorisations d’engagement pour régler la note des sous-marins Barracuda mais 29 millions d’euros seulement sont sortis des caisses du Trésor public. Idem en 2007 avec 105 millions versés pour 883 millions prévus et bis repetita en 2008 avec 330 millions versés alors que les autorisations d’engagement se montaient à 1 milliard d’euros.
Ces reports alourdissent doublement l’addition : en retardant le programme et en créant des intérêts sur les sommes prévues mais qui n’ont pas été payées. Pénalisantes pour les finances publiques et le contribuable, ces pratiques sont en réalité une habitude et n’ont rien d’exceptionnel. En 2004, la direction générale de l’armement (DGA) faisait même figurer dans ses contrats la possibilité de frais financiers liés à des retards de paiement.
Sans se fâcher, la commission déplore cette « insuffisante sincérité budgétaire dont toutes les parties semblent en fait se satisfaire ». Toutes ? Peut-être pas le contribuable puisqu’il va commencer à régler l’addition dès 2009. Et elle va être salée : la commission table sur une cinquantaine de milliards supplémentaires mais il ne s’agit là que d’un « plancher de dépenses inéluctables ».
Gilmar S. MARTINS
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